In 64 B.C., the military expedition of the Roman general Pompey put an end to the anarchy prevailing in the Seleucid empire and Phoenicia became part of the Roman world. But it is only after 31 B.C., under the reign of Augustus, that the pax romana extended over the area of today Lebanese shore.
Byblos was one of the smaller cities and less important during the Greco-Roman period. The temple of Resheph was elaborately rebuilt, and the city, though smaller than its neighbors such as Tyre and Sidon, was a center for the cult of Adonis the God of vegetation who dies in winter and is renewed each spring.
In the 3rd century, a small but impressive Roman theater was constructed.